Subject-specific findings



"Developing Effective Fractions Instruction for Kindergarten through 8th Grade"

Summary of key principles:
  • "Build on students' informal understanding of sharing and proportionality to develop initial fraction concepts.
  • Help students recognize that fractions are numbers and that they expand the number system beyond whole numbers. Use number lines as a central tool in teaching this and other fraction concepts from the early grades onward.
  • Help students understand why procedures for computations with fractions make sense.
  • Develop students' conceptual understanding of strategies for solving ratio, rate and proportion problems before exposing them to cross-multiplication as a procedure to use to solve such problems.
  • Professional development programs should place a high priority on improving teachers' understanding of fractions and how to teach them."

Hung-Hsi Wu:

"Teaching fractions in elementary school: A manual for teachers"

"Some remarks on the teaching of fractions in elementary school"