Comparison


Ideas

Explanatory virtues in what analogical alignments are constructed. In the preference for relational and systematic (coherent, with PK?) matches. 

-Explain why they are similar vs. What are the similarities? Compare these items. Greater use of higher order relations. Constraint to make inappropriate or incomplete matches? Those consistent with PK?



But it takes resources to compare, when to do it? There's so much to compare, what to compare?


Explaining elicits comparison in the service of detecting patterns relevant to target of explanation


Explaining guides/constrains nature of comparison for comparison most germane to discovery of abstract regularities.


-because it constrains people to find patterns, explaining leads children to compare. -influences what they compare.

-explaining of individual instances can lead to spontaneous comparison, in cases where data no longer directly available. in cases where no literal similarity matches to guide them to compare.

-reduce reliance on literal similarity matches to produce comparison. e.g... use of labels, 

model rooms, novel verb, number scales, relational categories (e.g. nest)


Christie & Gentner

Namy & Gentner


-alignment helps learning abstract relations (e.g. progressive alignment), as do word labels and prediction & feedback. explaining may produce a similar effect, without the need for either feedback OR adult provided knowledge. May be more effective when diverse examples used (cross dimension as well as same dimension). still, it may promote abstraction even when same data is repeated, not lead them to perseverate on overly narrow abstract relation. reduce the need for progressive alignment? correct explanations are *supported* by progressive alignment, easier to make generalization?


adults: why does this solution work? (EBL work).


List of references

Kurtz & Miao & Gentner 2001, JLS.


Explicitly compare two exemplars fosters transfer: bunch of refs.


Gentner, Loewenstein, Thompson 2004: Analogical encoding: facilitating knowledge transfer and integration.


Clement & Gentner 1991: causal antecedents.


Gentner, Holyoak & Kokinov 2001. Gentner & Medina, 1998.

Gentner & Loewenstein 2002.


Kolodner 1997 Educational Implications of Analogy.

Schwartz 1995.



Fong & Nisbett 1991 JEP General.



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