The goal is to create short online lessons to teach people general learning strategies/metacognitive skills/mindsets of intelligence, the efficacy of which could be assessed by insertion (vs. not or some control) in an online course like those on coursera.org, udacity.com, edx.org. The ideal goal is to find an effect on a big-ticket measure like attrition, final grades. (As have been found for Mindsets of Intelligence).
Examples of such lessons are: presenting videos to students that teach them general study skills, metacognitive strategies, or growth/malleable mindset of intelligence. Or adding (as minimally as is possible to get an effect) training programs that recur over time for problem-solving, critical thinking, goal-setting, self-explanation, comprehension.
(This is an extremely broad question, but we (implicitly) answer it all the time, so any opinions/suggestions welcome).What do you think would be the most effective lesson to teach (based on practical experience, research, your opinion)?
What lessons or online program would you recommend looking at, or what research papers/books to read?
There is a lot of theoretical discussion & many practical programs, but do you have any opinion on what principles/approach you like the best – and what is likely to have the biggest impact on students with the least amount of exposure possible?
What are interventions that were shown to impact performance significantly after a delay – e.g. semester GPA or grades a week or more later.(Longer-range interventions are fine too – most things I've seen don't fit this criterion).
Create a lesson that teaches a "Growth mindset" of intelligence (Carol Dweck, shown to impact GPA after just 2 45 minute lessons) and then teaches a simplified version of reciprocal teaching (e.g. Palinscar & Brown 1994), by showing an example of the strategy being applied to specific content, and then walks the learner through applying it to that content.
(Plus, draw on the literature & responses gathered below for insights/tactics that are most likely to improve such a lesson's impact on big-ticket learning measures like grades).
I think part of the difficulty in thinking about metacognitive training is that metacognition means so many different things!
I think Ann Brown's reciprocal teaching is a great example of metacognitive training - it's both about monitoring and fostering comprehension. I haven't read all of it, but this is one training program that is documented to be very effective (and quite feasible for teachers to actually implement in a classroom).
Palinscar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and instruction, 1(2), 117–175.
I think a huge component of Alan's work on problem solving is really about metacognitive monitoring, but I don't know that it necessarily constitutes a "training program" so to speak. However, in terms of problem solving it's probably the best example I'm aware of. Unfortunately, I also know that there aren't really any good studies that are going to give you quantitatively-measured effects, if you're looking for that type of thing. This stuff is in his 1985 book - let me know if you're interested in reading it and I can send it to you.
Another example I can think of is Barbara White's metacognitive roles in science inquiry. I don't know about transfer studies, but they at least did some measures to show improvement in metacognitive abilities of students.
White, B., & Frederiksen, J. (2005). A theoretical framework and approach for fostering metacognitive development. Educational Psychologist, 40(4), 211–223.
The other area in which you might look is at self-regulated learning. Zimmerman talks about teaching students skills of self-regulation, which would definitely be a subset of metacognitive abilities. I haven't read the training articles myself, but this 2002 article refers to a couple of pieces which may give you what you're looking for:
Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into practice, 41(2), 64–70.
Syllabus Metacognition from Barbara White's class
Azevedo, R. (2002). Beyond intelligent tutoring systems: Using computers as METAcognitive tools to enhance learning? Instructional Science, 30(1), 31-45.
Schraw, G. (2007). The use of computer-based environments for understanding and improving self-regulation. Metacognition Learning, 2, 169–176. (link)
JOURNAL: Metacognition & Learning
Metacognition in science education [electronic resource] : trends in current research / Anat Zohar,
Dordrecht ; New York : Springer, c2012
Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance / edited by Barry J. Zimmerman, Dale H. Schu
New York, NY ; London : Routledge : Taylor & Francis Group, 2011, c2011.